A case of duodenal perforation and pancreatic bleeding after flexible ureteroscopy for right renal pelvis UTUC
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) can be managed by flexible ureteroscopy (f-URS) and tumor laser ablation if kidney-sparing surgery is possible. This procedure can be affected by minor to serious complications, including life-threatening sepsis, ureteral strictures, and ureteral and renal pelvis injuries. The case of a 53-year-old man with history of high grade right renal pelvis and bladder tumor who undergone multiple endoscopic treatments and has already refused radical surgery is reported. F-URS and laser ablation with Thulium: YAG laser for UTUC recurrence of the right renal pelvis was performed, but the procedure was stopped due to significant bleeding which impaired vision. Postoperatively, the patient developed hematemesis and hemodynamic instability due to duodenal lesion and active bleeding documented at CT scan. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed to drain hemoperitoneum, repair duodenal lesion and concurrent radical right nephroureterectomy was carried out. A second surgery was necessary for repairing duodenal fistula. After 1 week the patient presented again with recurrent hematemesis and hemorrhagic shock. He underwent angiography and selective embolization of the duodenal branch of superior mesenteric artery and as well as branches of gastroduodenal artery successfully and the patient recovered with no other complications. This is the first case of duodenal perforation and pancreatic bleeding due to flexible ureteroscopy and laser ablation of right renal pelvis urothelial carcinoma.
Keywords: UTUC, flexible ureteroscopy, laser ablation, bleeding, duodenum