Cardiovascular aging in patients with chronic kidney disease: pathogenesis and potential therapeutics
Patients with chronic kidney dysfunction have an elevated risk for various cardiovascular diseases. Even in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) the prevalence of cardiovascular events and mortalities is extremely high if compared with age-matched general population. With worsening of kidney function this risk is growing intensely. There are many traditional and non-traditional risk factors that can lead to cardiovascular disease in CKD. Cardiovascular rather than kidney failure, per se, is the main cause of mortality in CKD. The increase of calcification promoters and the decrease of inhibitors leads to the development of vascular calcification in the early stages of CKD. In this regard, CKD mimics cardiovascular system aging with a premature onset and an accelerated progression.Various non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions have been studied to retard premature cardiovascular aging in CKD. In this review article, we are summarizing the pathogenesis, risk factors, and possible management strategies of cardiovascular disease in CKD.
Keywords: Cardiovascular, CKD, aging, vascular calcification, dialysis