PathoClock and PhysioClock in mice recapitulate human multimorbidity and heterogeneous aging
Background: Multimorbidity is a public health concern and an essential component of aging and healthspan but understudied because investigative tools are lacking that can be translatable to capture similarities and differences of the aging process across species and variability between individuals and individual organs.
Methods: To help address this need, body organ disease number (BODN) borrowed from human studies was applied to C57BL/6 (B6) and CB6F1 mouse strains at 8, 16, 24, and 32 months of age, as a measure of systems morbidity based on pathology lesions to develop a mouse PathoClock resembling clinically-based Body Clock in humans, using Bayesian inference. A mouse PhysioClock was also developed based on measures of physiological domains including cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and cognitive function in the same two mouse strains so that alignment with BODN was predictable.
Results: Between- and within-age variabilities in PathoClock and PhysioClock, as well as between-strain variabilities. Both PathoClock and PhysioClock correlated with chronological age more strongly in CB6F1 than C57BL/6. Prediction models were then developed, designated as PathoAge and PhysioAge, using regression models of pathology and physiology measures on chronological age. PathoAge better predicted chronological age than PhysioAge as the predicted chronological and observed chronological age for PhysioAge were complex rather than linear.
Conclusion: PathoClock and PhathoAge can be used to capture biological changes that predict BODN, a metric developed in humans, and compare multimorbidity across species. These mouse clocks are potential translational tools that could be used in aging intervention studies.
Keywords: Multimorbidity, aging, pathology, physiology, pathoClock, physioClock, pathoAge, physioAge