Recent advances in the genetic association between osteoporotic fracture and sarcopenia
The risk of osteoporotic fracture can be viewed as a function of loading conditions and the ability of the bone to withstand the load. Skeletal loads are dominated by muscle action. Recently, it has become clear that bone and muscle share genetic determinants. Involvement of the musculoskeletal system manifests as bone loss (osteoporosis) and muscle wasting (sarcopenia). There is clinical evidence that osteoporotic fractures are significantly associated with sarcopenia, and sarcopenia may be a potential predictive factor for fracture risk, which suggests that there may be shared genetic determinants between sarcopenia and osteoporotic fracture. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) studies have found that both lean mass and hand grip strength are associated with fracture risk, which may provide a possible endophenotype for elucidating the potential genetic study of fracture risk. Our effort to understand the clinical and genetic correlations between osteoporotic fracture and sarcopenia is helpful to understand the interaction between muscle and bone, and to study the etiology of complex musculoskeletal diseases. Identifying potentially important genetic variations in bone and muscle, measuring these variations using state-of-the-art technology, and replicating these experiments in humans and large animals will provide potential drug or intervention targets for osteoporotic fracture valuable in the future.
Keywords: Genetics, osteoporosis, fracture, sarcopenia, genome-wide association studies, single nucleotide polymorphism